The Three Categories of Tawheed – Shaykh Al-Albaanee [الشيخ الألباني]

Shakh Muhammad Nasir ud-Deen al-Albaanee on the three categories of Tawheed.

“And I say in truth that Ibn Taymiyyah did not come with something new. Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah has been textually stipulated in the Qur’an as has Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah and Tawheed as-Sifaat. All of these things are textually stipulated in the Qur’an and Sunnah.

However, Ibn Taymiyyah clarified these meanings through Tafsir of their texts from the Book (Qur’an) & the Sunnah. So, it becomes binding upon the Muslims to clarify them with this conciseness because not every Muslim is able to understand, for example where has the text about Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah come from, (or) where has the text about Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah (or al-Ibaadah) come from, (or) where has Tawheed as-Sifaat come from. The common folk are obligated to understand the testimony of Tawheed. So, they are not able to understand it except by way of the people of knowledge.

So, if we disregard the categorisation of Ibn Taymiyyah which clarifies the text of the Book and the Sunnah from which these three categories are derived; from Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah, Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah, and Tawheed as-Sifaat then what is the way that makes possible conceiving the texts to understand this reality, the reality of ‘Laa ilaha illallaah’.”

Translation & Audio Source:

Appendix: Definition of the three categories of Tawheed:

1. Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah – Oneness of the Lordship of Allaah: To believe there is only one Lord for all that exists and He is the Creator, Organiser, Planner, Sustainer & Giver of security, and that is Allah.

2. Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah – Oneness of the Worship of Allaah: To believe that none has the right to be worshipped in truth (e.g. praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen), swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting, pilgrimage etc) except Allaah alone.

3. Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat – Oneness of the Names & Qualities/Attributes of Allaah: To believe that:
We must not name or qualify Allaah except with that He or His Messenger has named or Qualified Allaah.
None can be named or qualified with the Names or Attributes of Allaah, e.g. The Most-High.
We must believe in all the Qualities of Allaah which Allaah has stated in His Book (Qur’an) or mentioned through the Messenger without changing their meanings, or ignoring them completely, or twisting the meanings, or giving resemblance to any of the created things.

Evidence refuting the Sufis who believe in the Unity of Existence.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله، نحمده ونستعينه ونستغفره، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله.

((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ))[آل عمران:102]،

“O you who believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared. (Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always), and die not except in a state of Islam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allah.”

[Aal-e-Imran (3): 102]

((يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ

الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا))[النساء:1]،

“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him

(Adam) He created his wife (Hawwa (Eve)), and from them both He created many men and women and

Fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs

(Kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you.”

[An-Nisaa (4): 1]

((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا * يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا))[الأحزاب:70-71].

“O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger he has indeed achieved a great achievement.”

[Al-Ahzab (33): 70-71]

أما بعد:

فإن أصدق الحديث كتاب الله، وخير الهدي هدي محمد صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم، وشر الأمور محدثاتها، وكل محدثة بدعة، وكل بدعة ضلالة، وكل ضلالة في النار

أما بعد:

يقول الله سبحانه وتعالى في كتابه الكريم:

Whatever is in the heavens and earth exalts [the praises of] Allaah; and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

[Al-Hadid (57): 1]

Therefore everything in the heavens and the earth glorifies the praises of Allaah. It [i.e. everything in the heavens and earth] is not Allaah.

Then Allaah Aza’wa’jal proceeds to say,

His is the dominion of the heavens and earth. He gives life and causes death, and He is over all things powerful. He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate; and He Knows all things

[Al-Hadid (57): 2-3]

صلى الله عليه وسلم In Sahih Muslim it is reported that the Prophet

used to say in his supplication:

O Allaah! The Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Great Throne; our Lord and the Lord of everthing. The Splitter of the grain and seed, the One Who revealed the Torah, Injeel and Quran. I take refuge with You from every creature whose forelock You hold. You are the First, there was nothing before You; You are the Last, there is nothing after You; You are the Manifest, there is nothing above You; You are the Inward, there is nothing beyond You. Remove the burden of debt from me and relieve me from poverty.

Then Allaah Aza’wa’jal says:

It is He Who created the heavens & the earth in Six Days & then Rose over the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth & what emerges from it & what ascends from the heaven & what descends therein; & He is with you (by His Knowledge) wherever you are.

[al-Hadid (57): 4]

Hence He mentions that the Heavens and the Earth, and in other places He adds “and everything between them” is created and praising Him. He also informs us that He knows everything.

As for His saying, “And He is with you”. Then the word ma‘a (with) does not necessitate that one of two things be mixed with the other according to the rules of the Arabic language.

This is like His, The Exalted’s saying,

O you who believe! Fear Allaah and be with those who are true.

[At-Tawbah (9): 119]

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah; those who are with him are severe against the disbelievers…

[Al-Fath (48): 29]

And those who believed after [the first emigration] and emigrated and fought with you – they are of you.

[Al-Anfal (8): 75]

The word ma‘a (with) has been used in the Qur’an in a general and specific sense.

The general usage can be seen in the previously quoted verse and in the verse of Surah Mujadilah,

Have you not considered that Allaah knows what is in the heavens and what is on the earth? There is no private conversation of three but He is the fourth; nor five but He is the sixth; and no less than that or more than that except that He is with them (with His Knowledge) wherever they are. Then He will inform them of what they did on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed Allaah knows all things.

[Al-Mujadilah (58): 7]

The context opens by mentioning knowledge and closes by mentioning knowledge and this is why ibn Abbas, ad-Dahhak, Sufyan ath-Thawri and Ahmad bin Hanbal said, ‘He is with them with His Knowledge.’

The specific usage can be seen in His, the Exalted’s saying:

Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their duty unto Him), and those who are Muhsinoon (good-doers)” [An-Nahl (16): 128]

And His saying to Musa,

He (Allaah) said, ‘Fear not, Indeed I am with you both; I Hear and I See’.”

[Ta Ha (20): 46]

And He, the Exalted says,

] said to his companion [Abu Bakr], صلى الله عليه وسلم“When he [Muhammad

‘Do not despair; indeed Allaah is with us’.”

[At-Tawbah (9): 40]

and Abu Bakr (radiyAllaahu ‘anhu). صلى الله عليه وسلم Meaning the Prophet

So in this sense He is with Musa and Aaron but not Pharaoh. He is with Muhammad and his companion but not with Abu Jahl and His other enemies. He is with those who fear Allaah and those who do good but not with the wrongdoers and oppressors.

If the meaning was that he was with them in His Essence in every place (as the deviant Sufis say), the specific sense would contradict the general sense. Rather the meaning is that He is with them, in the specific sense, by way of His Aid and Support. As for the saying of the Exalted,

“It is He (Allah) Who is the only Ilah (God to be worshipped) in the heaven and the only Ilah (God to be worshipped) on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.”

[Az-Zukhruf (43): 84]

Then this means that He is the deity of whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the Earth as He, the Exalted says,

To Him belongs the highest description in the heavens and the earth. He is the All-Mighty the All-Wise.

[Ar-Rum (30): 27]

The Salaf of this nation and their Imams are unanimously agreed that the Lord is separate from His creation, he is described with what He described Himself with and what His Messenger described Him with, without distortion or denial and without enquiring how or likening to the creation. He is described with Attributes of perfection and not with deficient attributes just as Allaah, the Exalted says,

Say: ‘He is Allaah, the One. Allah-us-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). “He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him’.

[Al-Ikhlas (112): 1-4]

Ibn Abbas (radiyAllaahu ‘anhu) said,

“As-Samad means Al-Alim, whose Knowledge is perfect, Al-Azim whose wisdom is perfect and As-Sayyid whose mastery is perfect”

[Reported by as-Suyuti, ‘ad-Durr al-Manthur’ (6/415).]

Ibn Mas’ud (radiyAllaahu ‘anhu) and others said,

“He [Allaah] is the One Who about whom there is nothing pointless and meaningless. Al-Ahad meaning that there is nothing comparable to Him,”

[Refer to: ibn Kathir [4/570] et al]

Therefore the name as-Samad includes describing Him with perfect Attributes and negating any deficiency from Him. The name Al-Ahad means that there is nothing like Him.

(Taken from: “The Decisive Criterion Between: The Friends of Allaah and The Friends of Shaytan” by Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah)

[To conclude, what has been presented is clear proof that Allaah is separate and distinct from His creation and not everywhere with His Essence as those who believe in Whatatul Wajood (Unity of Existence) believe.]

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك ، اشهد ان لا اله الا انت ، استغفرك و اتوب اليك

Glory is to You, O Allah, and praise is to You. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but You. I seek Your forgiveness and repent to You.

The Prohibition of Exalting Graves

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The Prohibition of Exalting Graves

The seriousness of Shirk and all things that lead to it should not be overlooked, Allaah Azawajal said in the Quran: “Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.” (Surah an-Nisa v.48)

The people of shirk & innovation exalt the graves and memorials of the dead, supplicating to the dead or via the dead, or believing that supplications by the graves will be answered.  Due to this they are much closer and more prone to satanic states.

It is established in the two Sahihs (Bukhari & Muslim) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Allah cursed the Jews and Christians for they took the graves of their Prophets as Mosques.”

It is established in Sahih Muslim that he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, five days before his death, “Indeed the person who has favoured me most with his company and property is Abu Bakr. If I were to have taken a beloved friend from the inhabitants of this earth, I would have taken Abu Bakr as a beloved friend; however your companion (i.e. the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ) is the beloved of Allah. Let all the gates to the Masjid be closed except for the gate of Abu Bakr. Indeed those who come before you took the graves as Mosques, do not take the graves as Mosques for I prohibit you from that.” [Bukhari & Muslim]

It is reported in the two Sahihs that the beauty and pictures of the churches in Abyssinia were mentioned to him during the illness [from which he died]. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Indeed those people, when a righteous person amongst them died, they built a Mosque over him & drew those pictures. They are the worst of people in the Sight of Allah on the Day of Judgement.” [Bukhari & Muslim]

It is reported in the Musnad of Ahmad & Sahih Abu Hatim (Sahih ibn Hibban) that he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Indeed the worst of creation are those who will be alive when the Last Hour will fall and those who take graves as Masjids” [Bukhari, Ahmad, and Sahih ibn Hibban]

It is reported in the Sahih from him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that he said, “Do not sit upon graves and do not perform prayer towards them” [Reported by Muslim and Abu Dawud]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “O Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped, indeed the Anger of Allah was severe upon a people who took the graves of their Prophets as Masjids.” [Reported by Malik and Ahmad, with a Sahih isnad]

In the Sunan it is reported that he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Do not take my grave as a place of festivities, send salah upon me from wherever you may be for indeed your salah is conveyed to me.” [Reported by Abu Dawud & Ahmad with a Sahih isnad]

Allah, the Exalted, says in His Book concerning the polytheists of the nation of Noah (عليه السلام),

“And they said: ‘You shall not leave your gods: nor shall you leave Wadd, nor Suwa, nor Yaghuth, nor Ya’uq nor Nasr’ (these are the names of their idols).” [Surah Nuh (71): 23]

Ibn Abbas and others from the Salaf said, “These were a people who were righteous amongst the nation of Noah, when they died the people secluded themselves upon their graves [in devotion]. They depicted forms and pictures of them and worshipped them. This was the first occurrence of idol worship.” [Reported by Bukhari]

So the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prohibited the taking of graves as Masjids in order to close the avenue to shirk. It was for this same reason that he prohibited praying at the rising and setting of the sun, since the polytheists used to prostrate to the sun at these times and Shaytan accompanies it at these times. Therefore, praying at these times would bear a resemblance to the prayers of the polytheists and hence this possible avenue [to committing shirk] was shut.

The Worshippers of idols are addressed by the devils, the same applies to those who seek relief and succour [assistance/aid/help] from the dead or absent, to those who supplicate to the dead or via the dead and to those who think that a supplication by a grave is better than supplicating in houses or Masjids.

They (ahlul-bid’ah) report a Hadith which is a lie by agreement of the People of Cognisance, “When a cognisance fails you then go to the inhabitants of the grave.” This was fabricated by those who opened the door to shirk.

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك ، اشهد ان لا اله الا انت ، استغفرك و اتوب اليك

Glory is to You, O Allah, and praise is to You. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but You. I seek Your forgiveness and repent to You.